How old is the drive? I have never heard of a case of a SATA data cable failing in service. I've certainly gotten bad cables before... but once installed and working, they don't tend to just suddenly fail for no reason.
Something is corrupt or just ain't set-up right in Windows... or start thinking about buying a replacement hard drive.
Check the power supply and power connections as well. Make sure S.M.A.R.T. is invoked (and works) on this hard drive.